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Table 3 Effect of cerebellar transcranial electrical stimulation on primary motor cortex excitability

From: Non-invasive brain stimulation as a tool to study cerebellar-M1 interactions in humans

Authors Sample size Electrode position Polarity Parameters Sessions Target muscle Coil size Timing of measurements Findings
Galea et al. (2009) [41] 8 HC Right CRB (25 cm2) Right buccinator muscle (25 cm2) Anodal TDCS Cathodal TDCS Sham 2 mA 25 min 3 randomized crossover FDI M1: figure-of-eight (70 mm) CRB: double-cone (110 mm) Pre/Post 0 min Cathodal cDCS (vs sham): ↓ CBI ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF Anodal cDCS (vs sham): ↔ CBI, MEP, MT, SICI, ICF
8 HC As above Anodal TDCS As above 1 As above As above As above ↑ CBIRC
6 HC As above Cathodal TDCS 1 mA 25 min 2 mA 25 min 2 randomized crossover As above As above Pre/Post 0, 30, 50 min 1 mA: ↔ CBI, MEPRC 2 mA: ↓ CBI, MEPRC
Hamada et al. (2012) [42] 12 HC Right CRB (25 cm2) Right buccinator muscle (25 cm2) Anodal TDCS-PAS25 Cathodal TDCS -PAS25 Sham TDCS -PAS25 2 mA 15 min 3 randomized crossover APB M1: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0, 30 min Anodal and cathodal (vs sham): ↓ PAS25, ↔ SAI, MEPRC
8 HC As above Anodal TDCS-PAS21.5 Sham TDCS-PAS21.5 As above 2 randomized crossover As above As above As above Anodal (vs sham): ↔ PAS21.5
Hamada et al. (2014) [44] 17 HC Right lateral CRB (25 cm2) Right buccinator muscle (25 cm2) Sham TDCS-PAS21.5 Sham TDCS-PAS25 Anodal TDCS-PAS21.5 Anodal TDCS-PAS25 2 mA 15 min 4 randomized crossover APB M1: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0, 15, 30 min Anodal (vs sham): ↓ PAS25, ↔ PAS21.5
10 HC As above Sham TDCS Anodal TDCS 2 mA 25 min 2 randomized crossover As above As above Online (5 min after onset of stimulation) Anodal (vs sham): ↓ MEPRC (active AP) ↔ MEPRC (active PA, rest PA and rest AP)
Sadnicka et al. (2014) [56] 10 WD Right CRB (25 cm2) Right buccinator muscle (25 cm2) Anodal TDCS-PAS25 Sham TDCS-PAS25 2 mA 15 min 2 randomized crossover APB FDI ADM M1: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0, 30 min Anodal (vs sham): ↔ PAS25, CSP, MEPRC
Strigaro et al. (2014) [52] 8 HC Right CRB (25 cm2) Right buccinator muscle (25 cm2) Anodal TDCS-PASvar360p Sham TDCS-PASvar360p 2 mA 30 min 2 randomized crossover APB M1: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0 min Anodal (vs sham): ↑ PASvar360p
Doeltgen et al. (2015) [46] 14 HC Right lateral CRB Right buccinator muscle Anodal TDCS Sham 2 mA 20 min 2 randomized crossover FDI M1: figure-of-eight (70 mm) CRB: figure-of-eight Pre/Post 0 min Anodal (vs sham): ↓ CBI ↔ SAI
Naro et al. (2016) [45] 25 HC Right CRB (25 cm2) Right buccinator muscle (25 cm2) 10 Hz TACS 50 Hz TACS 300 Hz TACS Sham TACS 2 mA 3000 cycles 4 randomized crossover Right and left APB M1: figure-of-eight CRB: double-cone Pre/Post 0, 15, 30 min 50Hz TACS: ↓ CBI, ↑ MEP, ↔LICI 300Hz TACS: ↑ CBI, ↔MEP, LICI 10Hz TACS: ↔CBI, MEP, LICI
  1. AP anterior-posterior, APB abductor pollicis brevis, CBI cerebellar brain inhibition, CBI RC cerebellar brain inhibition recruitment curve, CRB cerebellum, CSP cortical silent period, TACS transcranial alternating current stimulation, TDCS cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation, FDI first dorsal interosseous, HC healthy controls, ICF intracortical facilitation, M1 primary motor cortex, MEP motor evoked potential, MEP RC motor evoked potential recruitment curve, PA posterior-anterior, PAS paired-associative stimulation, SAI short latency afferent inhibition, SICI short interval intracortical inhibition, WD writing dystonia