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Table 5 Effect of cerebellum modulation on M1 neurophysiology assessed with TMS in healthy individuals

From: Non-invasive brain stimulation as a tool to study cerebellar-M1 interactions in humans

Outcome measure Plasticity protocol Authors Parameters Findings
1. Corticospinal excitability
Resting motor threshold Anodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41]  
Cathodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41]  
1 Hz rTMS Langguth et al. (2008) [47]  
10 Hz rTMS Langguth et al. (2008) [47]  
cTBS Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40]  
Koch et al. (2008) [34]  
Harrington et al. (2015) [39]  
iTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34]  
Harrington et al. (2015) [39]  
MEP amplitude Anodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] 1 mV
Cathodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] 1 mV
TACS Naro et al. (2016) [45] 120 % RMT ↑ contralateral up to 15 min (50 Hz)
1 Hz rTMS Gerschlager et al. (2002) [29] 1–1.5 mV ↑ up to 30 min
Oliveri et al. (2005) [30] 1 mV ↑ contralateral up to 15 min ↔ ipsilateral
Fierro et al (2007) [31] 120 % RMT ↔ 5–10 min ↑ 15–20 min
Popa et al. (2010) [32] 120 % RMT
cTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] 1 mV ↓ up to 15 min
Popa et al. (2010) [32] 120 % RMT
Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] 1 mV
Li Voti et al. (2014) [35] 1 mV ↓ up to 30 min
Di Biasio et al. (2014) [33] 120 % RMT
Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] 0.5–1 mV ↓ up to 40 min
Harrington et al. (2015) [39] 110 % RMT ↓ (rest) ↔ (active)
iTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] 1 mV ↑ up to 15 min
Popa et al. (2010) [32] 120 % RMT
Harrington et al. (2015) [39] 110 % RMT ↔ (rest and active)
CB-M1 PAS Lu et al. (2012) [19] 1 mV ↑ (PAS2ms) ↓ (PAS6ms, PAS10ms)
MEP recruitment curve Anodal TDCS Hamada et al. (2012) [42] 100, 120 and 140 % RMT
Hamada et al. (2014) [44] 100, 120, 140 and 160 % RMT ↔ PA rest (online) ↔ AP rest (online) ↔ PA active (online) ↓ AP active (online)
Cathodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] 100, 110, 120, 130 and 140 % RMT ↔ (1 and 2 mA)
Hamada et al. (2012) [42] 100, 120 and 140 % RMT
cTBS Bologna et al. (2015) [38] 100 to 150 % RMT ↓ 5 min, return to baseline 45 min
Bologna et al. (2015b) [37] 100 to 140 % RMT ↓ up to 45 min
2. Cerebellum brain inhibition
CBI Anodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] ISI: 5 ms CS: 5 % below bsAMT, and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 % below bsAMT TS 1 mV (adjusted post) ↑ CBI recruitment curve at 20–25 % below bsAMT
Doeltgen et al. (2015) [46] ISI: 5 ms CS: 100 % RMT (FDI) TS : 50 % MEPMAX
Cathodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] ISI: 3 and 5 ms CS: 5 % below bsAMT TS: 1 mV (adjusted post) ↓ (2 mA only, until 30 min post-TDCS) ↔ no CBI at 3 ms ISI
TACS Naro et al. (2016) [45] ISI: 7 ms CS: 90 % AMT TS: 120 % RMT ↓ (50 Hz: up to 15 min post-TACS) ↑ (300 Hz: only 0 min post-TACS)
1 Hz rTMS Popa et al. (2010) [32] ISI: 5 ms CS: 90 % adjusted-RMT TS: 120 % RMT ↓ (contralateral only, until 30 min post)
cTBS Popa et al. (2010) [32] ISI: 5 ms CS: 90 % adjusted-RMT TS: 120 % RMT
iTBS Popa et al. (2010) [32] ISI: 5 ms CS: 90 % adjusted-RMT TS: 120 % RMT
CB-M1 PAS Lu et al. (2012) [19] ISI: 7 ms CS: 95 % AMT (inion) TS: 0.6–0.8 mV (FDI)
4. Intracortical inhibition
SICI Anodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] ISI: 2 ms CS: 80 % RMT TS: 1 mV (adjusted post)
Cathodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] ISI: 2 ms CS: 80 % RMT TS: 1 mV (adjusted post)
1 Hz rTMS Oliveri et al. (2005) [30] ISI: 1 and 3 ms CS: 70 % RMT TS: 1 mV (adjusted post)
Fierro et al. (2007) [31] ISI: 2 and 4 ms CS: 80 % RMT TS: 120 % RMT (adjusted post)
Langguth et al. (2008) [47] ISI: 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 90 % AMT, TS: 1 mV ↑ (averaged ISIs)
10 Hz rTMS Langguth et al. (2008) [47] ISI: 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 90 % AMT, TS: 1 mV
cTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT, TS: 1 mV ↓ (3 ms, contralateral only)
Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↓ (2 and 3 ms, 0–20 min)
Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] SI: 2.5 ms CS: 70 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT (adjusted post)
iTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
CB-M1 PAS Lu et al. (2012) [19] ISI: 2 ms CS: 70 to 90 % AMT (50 % inh.) ↓ (all PAS ISIs)
LICI TACS Naro et al. (2016) [45] ISI: 50 ms CS: 120 % RMT TS: 120 % RMT
cTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 100 and 150 ms CS: 120 % RMT TS: 1 mV ↑ (100 ms)
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] SI: 100 ms CS: 120 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT (adjusted post)
iTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 100 and 150 ms CS: 120 % RMT TS: 1 mV ↓ (100 ms)
CSP 1 Hz rTMS Oliveri et al. (2005) [30] 30 % maximal force TS: 1 mV
cTBS Harrington et al. (2015) [39] 20 Newton force TS:110 % RMT
iTBS Harrington et al. (2015) [39] 20 Newton force TS:110 % RMT
5. Intracortical facilitation
ICF Anodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] ISI: 10 ms CS: 80 % RMT TS: 1 mV (adjusted post)
Cathodal TDCS Galea et al. (2009) [41] ISI: 10 ms CS: 80 % RMT TS: 1 mV (adjusted post)
1 Hz rTMS Oliveri et al. (2005) [30] ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 70 % RMT TS: 1 mV (adjusted post) ↑ (15 ms)
Fierro et al (2007) [31] ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % RMT TS: 120 % RMT ↓ (10 ms)
Langguth et al. (2008) [47] ISI: 7, 8, 10, 15 and 20 ms CS: 90 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↑ (15 and 20 ms)
10 Hz rTMS Langguth et al. (2008) [47] ISI: 7, 8, 10, 15 and 20 ms CS: 90 % AMT TS: 1 mV
iTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↓ (15 ms)
cTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Hubsch et al. (2013) [48] SI: 15 ms CS: 70 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT (adjusted post)
CB-M1 PAS Lu et al. (2012) [19] ISI: 10 ms CS: 70 to 95 % AMT
SICF cTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, 2.5, 3.3, 4.1 ms CS: 90 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT
iTBS Koch et al. (2008) [34] ISI: 1.0, 1.3, 2.1, 2.5, 3.3, 4.1 ms CS: 90 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT
6. Afferent inhibition
SAI Anodal TDCS Hamada et al. (2012) [42] ISI: 15, 20 and 25 ms TS: 1 mV
Doeltgen et al. (2015) [46] ISI: 25 and 30 ms TS : 50 % MEPMAX
Cathodal TDCS Hamada et al. (2012) [42] ISI: 15, 20 and 25 ms TS: 1 mV
cTBS Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] ISI: N20 – 4 ms to N20 + 8 ms TS: 1 mV
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] ISI: 20 ms TS: 130 % RMT (adjusted post) CS: 130 % sensory threshold
SAI recruitment curve cTBS Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] ISI: N20 – 4 ms to N20 + 8 ms TS: 1 mV CS: 100, 200 and 300 % sensory threshold
LAI cTBS Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] ISI: 200 ms TS: 130 % RMT (adjusted post) CS: 130 % sensory threshold
7. Motor cortex plasticity
PAS Anodal TDCS Hamada et al. (2012) [42] ISI: 21.5 and 25 ms ↓ PAS25 ↔ PAS21.5
Hamada et al. (2014) [44] ISI: 21.5 and 25 ms ↓ PAS25 ↔ PAS21.5
Strigaro et al. (2014) [52] ISI: 21.5, 25 ms and variable ↑ PASvar
Cathodal TDCS Hamada et al. (2012) [42] ISI: 21.5 and 25 ms ↓ PAS25
cTBS Popa et al. (2013) [50] ISI: 25 ms ↑ PAS25 (post 25–60 min)
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] ISI: 25 ms ↑ PAS25
  Kishore et al. (2014) [51] ISI: 25 ms ↔ PAS25
iTBS Popa et al. (2013) [50] ISI: 25 ms ↓ PAS25 (post 5–15 min)
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] ISI: 25 ms ↓PAS25
cTBS iTBS Popa et al. (2013) [50] 80 % AMT, 600 pulses Contra. M1
iTBS iTBS Popa et al. (2013) [50] 80 % AMT, 600 pulses Contra. M1
  1. AMT active motor threshold, CBI cerebellar brain inhibition, CS conditioning stimulus, Contra contralateral, CSP cortical silent period, HC healthy controls, ICF intracortical facilitation, Ipsi. ipsilateral, ISI inter-stimulus interval, LAI long latency afferent inhibition, LICI long interval intracortical inhibition, MEP motor evoked potential, PAS paired-associative stimulation, SAI short latency afferent inhibition, SICI short interval intracortical inhibition, SICF short interval intracortical facilitation, TS test stimulus