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Table 1 Cerebellar Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) studies

From: Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation in neurological disease

Author & year Sample Trial type Polarity and number of sessions Stimulation electrode position Reference electrode position Current strength and duration Outcome Online/Offline procedure Follow-up Results
Parkinson’s disease
Ferrucci et al. (2015) [47] N = 9 (74.3 ± 8) Randomized, double blind, cross-over A/S 5 daily tDCS Whole cerebellum or bilateral M1 Right deltoid muscle 2 mA, 20 min UPDRS (III-IV), PDQ8, BDI, word recall, spatial cueing, SRTT Offline 1–4 week A tDCS over M1 and cerebellum improved: UPDRS(dyskinesia section) score by about 20 %.
Dystonia
Sadnicka et al. (2014) [50] N = 10 (not reported) Randomized, double-blind A/S single tDCS Right cerebellar cortex Right buccinator muscle 2 mA, 15 min RMT, AMT, RC, CSP, VAS Offline No Negative
Bradnam et al. (2015) [48] N = 16 8 patients (59 ± 13) 8 healthy subjects (61.21 ± 11.73) Randomized, double-blind A/C/S single tDCS Right cerebellar cortex Right buccinator muscle 2 mA, 20 min ADDS, WCRS, MEPs, MFS, APP Offline No A tCDCS improved: APP by 12.81 %. A-C tDCS reduced handwriting MSF (A: 8.47 %; C: 9.6 %).
Essential Tremor
Gironell et al. (2014) [51] N = 10 (71.4 not reported) Randomized, double blind, cross-over C/S 5daily tDCS Bilateral cerebellar cortex Fp 1, Fp2 2 mA, 20 min TCRS, accelometric recording, self-reporteddisability scale Offline 4 weeks Negative
Cerebellar Ataxia
Grimaldi et al. (2013) [52] N = 9 (mean age 51.3 ± 14) Single blind, sham-controlled A/S Right cerebellar cortex, vermis Contralateral
supra-orbital area
1 mA, 20 min SR, MCT, Computerized Posturography Offline No A tCDCS reduced the amplitudes of long-latency stretch reflexes
Grimaldi et al. (2014) [53] N = 2 (mean age 46 ± 4.24) Single blind, sham-controlled A/S Right cerebellar cortex, Left M1 Contralateral supra-orbital area, right supra-orbital area 1 mA, 20 + 20 min SARA, Upper limb tremor (postural and action tremor), dysmetria Offline No A tCCDCS reduced: the PSD peak by 38.63 and 41.42 % in both patients, the magnitude of low frequency oscillations by 46.9 and 62.3 % respectively, and the onset latency of the hypermetria by about 41 and 45 %.
Benussi et al. (2015) [54] N = 19 (mean age 53.8 ± 18.4) Randomized, double blind, cross-over; sham-controlled A/S Cerebellar cortex Right deltoid muscle 2 mA 20 min SARA, ICARS, 9HPT, 8 MW offline No A tCDCS improved: SARA by about 10 %, ICARS by 12 %, 9HPT by 11 %, 8 MW by 11 %.
  1. A anodal tDCS, ADDS arm dystonia disability scale, AMT active motor threshold, APP average pen pressure, BDI beck depression inventory, C cathodal tDCS, ICARS International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale, M1 motor cortex, mA milliampere, MCT Mechanical Counter Test, Min minutes, MEPs motor evoked potentials, MSF mean stroke frequency, Offline the subject receives stimulation before and after executing the task, Online the subject receives stimulation during the task, PDQ-8 Parkinson’s disease questionnaire 8, Fp prefrontal areas, PSD power spectral density, S sham tDCS, SARA scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia, SR Stretch reflexes, SRTT serial reaction time task, tCDCS transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation, tCCDCS transcranial cerebello-cerebral direct current stimulation, tDCS transcranial direct current stimulation, TCRS tremor clinical rating scale, UPDRS Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale, VAS visual analog scale, WCRS writer’s cramp rating scale, 9HPT Nine-Hole Peg Test, 8MW 8-Meter Walking Time