Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Effect of cerebellar rTMS and TBS on primary motor cortex excitability

From: Non-invasive brain stimulation as a tool to study cerebellar-M1 interactions in humans

Authors Sample size Stimulation target(s) Protocol Parameters Sessions Target muscle Coil size Timing of measurements Findings
Gerschlager et al. (2002) [29] 8 HC Right CRB 1 Hz rTMS 500 pulses 40 % MSO Biphasic 1 Right and left FDI CRB: double-cone (110 mm) M1: figure-of-eight (90 mm) Pre/Post N1 (0, 5, 10, 15 min), Post N2 (20, 25, 30 min) CRB and control target: ↑ MEP only in Left FDI
5 HC Right posterior neck (control)   As above 1 As above Neck: figure-of-eight (90 mm) As above
Oliveri et al. (2005) [30] 10 HC Left CRB (main experiment) 1 Hz rTMS 600 pulses 90 % RMT 1 Left FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre (3 blocks)/Post 0, 5, 10 min ↑ MEP, ICF ↔ SICI, CSP
6 HC Left CRB (time course) As above As above 1 As above As above Pre (3 blocks)/Post 0, 30, 60 min ↑ ICF (0–30 min)
6 HC Left CRB (ipsilateral hand) As above As above 1 Right FDI As above Pre/Post 0 min ↔ ICF
Fierro et al (2007) [31] 8 HC Right lateral CRB (main experiment) 1 Hz rTMS 900 pulses 90 % RMT (inion) 1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre (2 blocks)/Post 0, 10 min ↔ SICI, MEP ↓ ICF
4 HC Right posterior neck (control) As above As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF
4 HC Right lateral CRB (time course) As above As above 1 Right APB As above Pre/Post 5, 10, 15, 20 min ↑ MEP (15–20 min)
8 HC Right lateral CRB (time course) As above As above 1 Right FDI As above Pre/Post 0, 10, 20 min ↓ ICF (0–20 min)
Langguth et al. (2008) [48] 10 HC Medial CRB Right lateral CRB 1 Hz rTMS 1000 pulses 120 % RMT 4 randomized crossover Right ADM M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0 1 Hz: ↑ SICI, ICF, ↔ RMT
  Medial CRB Right lateral CRB 10 Hz rTMS       10 Hz: ↔ SICI, ICF, RMT
Koch et al. (2008) [34] 10 HC Left lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 20 subjects randomly assigned to 7 exp. Left and Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (90 mm) Pre/Post 0, 15, 30, 60 min ↓ MEP, SICI
12 HC As above As above As above   As above As above Pre/Post ↑ LICI; ↔ SICF
6 HC Left cervical root (control) As above As above   Right FDI As above As above ↔ MEP, SICI, LICI
6 HC Left lateral CRB As above 600 pulses 90 % AMT   As above As above As above ↓ MEP, SICI; ↑ LICI
10 HC As above iTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT   As above As above Pre/Post 0, 15, 30, 60 min ↑ MEP, LICI; ↓ICF
10 HC As above As above As above   As above As above Pre/Post ↓ LICI, ↔ SICF
Koch et al. (2009) [48] 10 PD with LID Left lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 2 pseudo-randomized Left FDI CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post Active (vs sham): ↓ SICI; ↑ LICI
   Sham 600 pulses 40 % AMT     
Popa et al. (2010) [32] 10 HC Right CRB 1 Hz rTMS 900 pulses 90 % Adj.RMT 5 Randomized crossover Right FDI Right ADM CRB: double-cone (110 mm) M1: figure-of-eight (90 mm) Pre/Post 1–10 min, Post 10–20 min Right CRB (FDI + ADM); ↓CBI ↔ MEP ↔ CBI, MEP
6 HC Right cervical root (control) As above As above   As above As above As above Cervical roots (FDI, ADM): ↔ CBI, MEP
6 HC Left CRB As above As above   As above As above As above Left CRB: ↓CBI (FDI, 10 min only) ↔ MEP (FDI, ADM)
10 HC Right CRB cTBS iTBS 600 pulses 80 % Adj.AMT   As above As above As above cTBS: ↓ CBI (FDI) ↔ MEP iTBS: ↔ CBI, MEP
Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] 16 HC Right CRB cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0, 20, 40 min HC: ↓ MEP, SICI
13 PD     2 (On vs Off)     PD: ↔ MEP, SICI
Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] 12 HC Right lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post HC: ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF, SLAI
12 AD         AD: ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF; ↑ SLAI
8 HC Right lateral CRB As above As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ SAIRC
8 HC Right OC (control) As above As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF, SLAI
Popa et al. (2013) [50] 14 HC Right lateral CRB (Lobule VIII) iTBSCB → PAS25 cTBSCB → PAS25 iTBSCB → iTBSM1 600 pulses 80 % AMT 3, pseudo-randomized Right APB Right ADM M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 45 min ↓ PAS25 (APB only) ↑ PAS25 (APB and ADM) ↔ iTBSM1
9 HC As above cTBSCB → iTBSM1 As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ iTBSM1
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] 25 HC Lobule VIII CRB cTBSCB → PAS25 iTBSCB → PAS25 ShamCB → PAS25 600 pulses 80 % AMT 3 randomized Right APB Right ADM M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 10, 15. 20, 25, 30 min HC: cTBS: ↑ PAS25 iTBS: ↓ PAS25 All conditions : ↔ SICI, ICF, LICI, SAI, LAI
21 WD         WD: cTBSCB: ↔ PAS25 iTBSCB: ↔ PAS25 All conditions : ↔ SICI, ICF, LICI, SAI, LAI
Kishore et al. (2014) [51] 16 PD with LIDs CRB ipsi to affected side (Lobule VIII) cTBSCB → PAS25 ShamCB → PAS25 600 pulses 80 % AMT 2 randomized Contra. APB M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 5, 15, 30 min ↑ PAS25 ↔ RMT, SICI, LICI, SAI, LAI
16 HC Right lateral CRB As above As above 2 randomized Right APB As above As above ↔ PAS25
7 PD with LIDs CRB ipsi to affected side (Lobule VIII) cTBSCB → iTBSM1 ShamCB → iTBSM1   2 randomized Contra. APB As above As above ↔ iTBSM1
20 PD with LIDs Bilateral CRB (Lobule VIII) cTBSCB → iTBSM1 ShamCB → iTBSM1 600 pulses 80 % AMT 10 (2 weeks) randomized groups Right APB As above Pre/week 2, 4, 8 post ↑ PAS25 (week 2)
Bonnì et al. (2014) [58] 6 PCS Damaged lateral CRB iTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 10 (2 weeks) Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post ↓ CBI; ↑ ICF; ↔ SICI
Brusa et al. (2014) [59] 10 PSP Left and right lateral CRB (2 min pause in between) iTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 10 (2 weeks) Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 2-week intervention (no further information) ↑CBI; ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF, SAI
Koch et al. (2014) [57] 10 CD Bilateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 10 (2 weeks) Right FDI Right APB M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre (Friday before the start of the 2-weeks treatment) Post (Monday after the end of the 2-weeks treatment) Active (vs. sham): ↓ CBI; ↔ ICF, SICI, CSP ↑ PAS topographic specificity ↓ symptoms
10 CD Sham (coil angled 90°) As above 600 pulses 40 % AMT As above As above As above As above
Li Voti et al. (2014) [35] 12 HC Right lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 15, 30, 60 min ↓ MEP
Di Biasio et al. (2014) [33] 10 HC 15 PD OFF Ipsi. Damaged CRB Sham (neck muscles) cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 2 randomized Contra. FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (90 mm) Pre/Post 5, 25 min HC and PD: ↓ MEP ↓ symptoms
Bologna et al. (2015) [38] 11 HC 16 ET Right CRB Sham (neck muscles) cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 2 randomized Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight Pre/Post 5, 45 min HC: ↓ MEPRC ET: ↔ MEPRC ↔ symptoms
Bologna et al. (2015) [37] 10 HC 13 RT Ipsi. CRB to tremor hand Sham (neck muscles) cTBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT 2 randomized FDI (tremor hand) M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight Pre/Post 5, 45 min HC and RT: ↓ MEPRC ↔ symptoms
Harrington et al. (2015) [39] 13 HC Right CRB cTBS iTBS Sham TBS 600 pulses 80 % AMT (6 subjects) 90 % AMT (7 subjects) 3 randomized crossover Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight Pre/Post cTBS: ↓ MEP
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, AMT active motor threshold, APB abductor pollicis brevis, CBI cerebellar brain inhibition, CBI RC cerebellar brain inhibition recruitment curve, CRB cerebellum, Contra contralateral, CSP cortical silent period, ET essential tremor, FDI first dorsal interosseous, HC healthy controls, ICF intracortical facilitation, Isps ipsilateral, LICI long interval intracortical inhibition, M1 primary motor cortex, MEP motor evoked potential, MEP RC motor evoked potential recruitment curve, MSO maximal stimulator output, PAS paired-associative stimulation, PCS posterior circulation stroke, PD Parkinson’s disease, PSP progressive supranuclear palsy, SAI short latency afferent inhibition, SAI RC short latency afferent inhibition recruitment curve, SICI short interval intracortical inhibition, SICF short interval intracortical facilitation, WD writing dystonia