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Table 2 Effect of cerebellar rTMS and TBS on primary motor cortex excitability

From: Non-invasive brain stimulation as a tool to study cerebellar-M1 interactions in humans

Authors Sample size Stimulation target(s) Protocol Parameters Sessions Target muscle Coil size Timing of measurements Findings
Gerschlager et al. (2002) [29] 8 HC Right CRB 1 Hz rTMS 500 pulses
40 % MSO
Biphasic
1 Right and left FDI CRB: double-cone (110 mm)
M1: figure-of-eight (90 mm)
Pre/Post N1 (0, 5, 10, 15 min), Post N2 (20, 25, 30 min) CRB and control target: ↑ MEP only in Left FDI
5 HC Right posterior neck (control)   As above 1 As above Neck: figure-of-eight (90 mm) As above
Oliveri et al. (2005) [30] 10 HC Left CRB
(main experiment)
1 Hz rTMS 600 pulses
90 % RMT
1 Left FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre (3 blocks)/Post 0, 5, 10 min ↑ MEP, ICF
↔ SICI, CSP
6 HC Left CRB
(time course)
As above As above 1 As above As above Pre (3 blocks)/Post 0, 30, 60 min ↑ ICF (0–30 min)
6 HC Left CRB
(ipsilateral hand)
As above As above 1 Right FDI As above Pre/Post 0 min ↔ ICF
Fierro et al (2007) [31] 8 HC Right lateral CRB
(main experiment)
1 Hz rTMS 900 pulses
90 % RMT (inion)
1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre (2 blocks)/Post 0, 10 min ↔ SICI, MEP
↓ ICF
4 HC Right posterior neck (control) As above As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF
4 HC Right lateral CRB
(time course)
As above As above 1 Right APB As above Pre/Post 5, 10, 15, 20 min ↑ MEP (15–20 min)
8 HC Right lateral CRB
(time course)
As above As above 1 Right FDI As above Pre/Post 0, 10, 20 min ↓ ICF (0–20 min)
Langguth et al. (2008) [48] 10 HC Medial CRB
Right lateral CRB
1 Hz rTMS 1000 pulses
120 % RMT
4
randomized
crossover
Right ADM M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0 1 Hz:
↑ SICI, ICF, ↔ RMT
  Medial CRB
Right lateral CRB
10 Hz rTMS       10 Hz:
↔ SICI, ICF, RMT
Koch et al.
(2008) [34]
10 HC Left lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
20 subjects randomly assigned to 7 exp. Left and Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (90 mm) Pre/Post 0, 15, 30, 60 min ↓ MEP, SICI
12 HC As above As above As above   As above As above Pre/Post ↑ LICI; ↔ SICF
6 HC Left cervical root (control) As above As above   Right FDI As above As above ↔ MEP, SICI, LICI
6 HC Left lateral CRB As above 600 pulses
90 % AMT
  As above As above As above ↓ MEP, SICI; ↑ LICI
10 HC As above iTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
  As above As above Pre/Post 0, 15, 30, 60 min ↑ MEP, LICI; ↓ICF
10 HC As above As above As above   As above As above Pre/Post ↓ LICI, ↔ SICF
Koch et al.
(2009) [48]
10 PD with LID Left lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
2
pseudo-randomized
Left FDI CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post Active (vs sham): ↓ SICI; ↑ LICI
   Sham 600 pulses
40 % AMT
    
Popa et al. (2010) [32] 10 HC Right CRB 1 Hz rTMS 900 pulses
90 % Adj.RMT
5
Randomized
crossover
Right FDI
Right ADM
CRB: double-cone (110 mm)
M1: figure-of-eight (90 mm)
Pre/Post 1–10 min, Post 10–20 min Right CRB (FDI + ADM);
↓CBI ↔ MEP
↔ CBI, MEP
6 HC Right cervical root (control) As above As above   As above As above As above Cervical roots (FDI, ADM): ↔ CBI, MEP
6 HC Left CRB As above As above   As above As above As above Left CRB:
↓CBI (FDI, 10 min only) ↔ MEP (FDI, ADM)
10 HC Right CRB cTBS
iTBS
600 pulses
80 % Adj.AMT
  As above As above As above cTBS: ↓ CBI (FDI) ↔ MEP
iTBS: ↔ CBI, MEP
Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] 16 HC Right CRB cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0, 20, 40 min HC: ↓ MEP, SICI
13 PD     2 (On vs Off)     PD: ↔ MEP, SICI
Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] 12 HC Right lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post HC: ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF, SLAI
12 AD         AD: ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF;
↑ SLAI
8 HC Right lateral CRB As above As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ SAIRC
8 HC Right OC (control) As above As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF, SLAI
Popa et al. (2013) [50] 14 HC Right lateral CRB (Lobule VIII) iTBSCB → PAS25
cTBSCB → PAS25
iTBSCB → iTBSM1
600 pulses
80 % AMT
3, pseudo-randomized Right APB
Right ADM
M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 45 min ↓ PAS25 (APB only)
↑ PAS25 (APB and ADM)
↔ iTBSM1
9 HC As above cTBSCB → iTBSM1 As above 1 As above As above As above ↔ iTBSM1
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] 25 HC Lobule VIII CRB cTBSCB → PAS25
iTBSCB → PAS25
ShamCB → PAS25
600 pulses
80 % AMT
3
randomized
Right APB
Right ADM
M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 10, 15. 20, 25, 30 min HC:
cTBS: ↑ PAS25
iTBS: ↓ PAS25
All conditions : ↔ SICI, ICF, LICI, SAI, LAI
21 WD         WD:
cTBSCB: ↔ PAS25
iTBSCB: ↔ PAS25
All conditions : ↔ SICI, ICF, LICI, SAI, LAI
Kishore et al. (2014) [51] 16 PD with LIDs CRB ipsi to affected side (Lobule VIII) cTBSCB → PAS25
ShamCB → PAS25
600 pulses
80 % AMT
2
randomized
Contra. APB M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 5, 15, 30 min ↑ PAS25
↔ RMT, SICI, LICI, SAI, LAI
16 HC Right lateral CRB As above As above 2
randomized
Right APB As above As above ↔ PAS25
7 PD with LIDs CRB ipsi to affected side (Lobule VIII) cTBSCB → iTBSM1
ShamCB → iTBSM1
  2
randomized
Contra. APB As above As above ↔ iTBSM1
20 PD with LIDs Bilateral CRB (Lobule VIII) cTBSCB → iTBSM1
ShamCB → iTBSM1
600 pulses
80 % AMT
10 (2 weeks)
randomized groups
Right APB As above Pre/week 2, 4, 8 post ↑ PAS25 (week 2)
Bonnì et al.
(2014) [58]
6 PCS Damaged lateral CRB iTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
10 (2 weeks) Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post ↓ CBI; ↑ ICF; ↔ SICI
Brusa et al.
(2014) [59]
10 PSP Left and right lateral CRB (2 min pause in between) iTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
10 (2 weeks) Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 2-week intervention (no further information) ↑CBI; ↔ MEP, SICI, ICF, SAI
Koch et al.
(2014) [57]
10 CD Bilateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
10 (2 weeks) Right FDI
Right APB
M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre (Friday before the start of the 2-weeks treatment)
Post (Monday after the end of the 2-weeks treatment)
Active (vs. sham):
↓ CBI;
↔ ICF, SICI, CSP
↑ PAS topographic specificity
↓ symptoms
10 CD Sham (coil angled 90°) As above 600 pulses
40 % AMT
As above As above As above As above
Li Voti et al. (2014) [35] 12 HC Right lateral CRB cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
1 Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (70 mm) Pre/Post 15, 30, 60 min ↓ MEP
Di Biasio et al.
(2014) [33]
10 HC
15 PD OFF
Ipsi. Damaged CRB
Sham (neck muscles)
cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
2 randomized Contra. FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight (90 mm) Pre/Post 5, 25 min HC and PD: ↓ MEP
↓ symptoms
Bologna et al. (2015) [38] 11 HC
16 ET
Right CRB
Sham (neck muscles)
cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
2 randomized Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight Pre/Post 5, 45 min HC: ↓ MEPRC
ET: ↔ MEPRC
↔ symptoms
Bologna et al. (2015) [37] 10 HC
13 RT
Ipsi. CRB to tremor hand
Sham (neck muscles)
cTBS 600 pulses
80 % AMT
2 randomized FDI (tremor hand) M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight Pre/Post 5, 45 min HC and RT: ↓ MEPRC
↔ symptoms
Harrington et al. (2015) [39] 13 HC Right CRB cTBS
iTBS
Sham TBS
600 pulses
80 % AMT (6 subjects)
90 % AMT (7 subjects)
3
randomized
crossover
Right FDI M1 and CRB: figure-of-eight Pre/Post cTBS: ↓ MEP
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, AMT active motor threshold, APB abductor pollicis brevis, CBI cerebellar brain inhibition, CBI RC cerebellar brain inhibition recruitment curve, CRB cerebellum, Contra contralateral, CSP cortical silent period, ET essential tremor, FDI first dorsal interosseous, HC healthy controls, ICF intracortical facilitation, Isps ipsilateral, LICI long interval intracortical inhibition, M1 primary motor cortex, MEP motor evoked potential, MEP RC motor evoked potential recruitment curve, MSO maximal stimulator output, PAS paired-associative stimulation, PCS posterior circulation stroke, PD Parkinson’s disease, PSP progressive supranuclear palsy, SAI short latency afferent inhibition, SAI RC short latency afferent inhibition recruitment curve, SICI short interval intracortical inhibition, SICF short interval intracortical facilitation, WD writing dystonia