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Table 6 Effect of cerebellum modulation on M1 neurophysiology assessed with TMS in clinical populations

From: Non-invasive brain stimulation as a tool to study cerebellar-M1 interactions in humans

Outcome measure Plasticity protocol Authors Population Parameters Findings
1. Corticospinal excitability
Resting motor threshold cTBS Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] AD  ↔ (HC)
cTBS Kishore et al. (2014) [51] PD with LIDs  
MEP amplitude cTBS Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] AD 1 mV ↔ (HC)
Di Biasio et al. (2015) [33] PD 120 % RMT ↓ Off medication ↓ (HC)
iTBS Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] PD 0.5–1 mV ↔ On or Off medication ↓ (HC)
Brusa et al. (2014) [59] PSP 1 mV
MEP recruitment curve cTBS Bologna et al. (2015) [38] ET 100 to 150 % RMT ↓ (HC)
Bologna et al. (2015b) [37] RT (PD) 100 to 140 % RMT ↓ up to 45 min ↓ (HC)
Sadnicka et al. (2014) [56] WD 100 to 140 % RMT
2. Cerebellum brain inhibition
CBI cTBS Koch et al. (2014) [57] CD ISI: 3, 5, 10 ms CS: 90 % RMT (ipsi. M1) TS: 1 mV ↓ ISI 10 ms
iTBS Bonnì et al. (2014) [58] PCS ISI: 3, 5, 10 ms CS: 90 % RMT (contra. M1) TS: 0.5–1 mV ↓ all ISIs
Brusa et al. (2014) [59] PSP ISI: 3, 5, 10 ms CS: 90 % RMT (ipsi. M1) TS: 1 mV ↑ all ISIs
3. Intracortical inhibition
SICI cTBS Koch et al. (2009) [48] PD ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] PD ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↓ (HC)
Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] AD ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↔ (HC)
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] WD SI: 2.5 ms CS: 70 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT (adj. post) ↔ (HC)
Koch et al. (2014) [57] CD ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Kishore et al. (2014) [51] PD with LIDs ISI: 2.5 ms CS: 70 % RMT TS: 1 mV
iTBS Bonnì et al. (2014) [58] PCS ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Brusa et al. (2014) [59] PSP ISI: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
LICI cTBS Koch et al. (2009) [48] PD with LID ISI: 100 and 150 ms CS: 120 % RMT TS: 1 mV ↑ 100 ms
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] WD SI: 100 ms CS: 120 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT (adj. post) ↔ (HC)
Kishore et al. (2014) [51] PD with LIDs ISI: 100 ms CS: 110 % RMT TS: 1 mV
CSP Anodal TDCS Sadnicka et al. (2014) [56] WD 20 % maximal force APB TS: 120 % RMT
cTBS Koch et al. (2014) [57] CD 50 % maximal force TS: 130 % RMT
4. Intracortical facilitation
  cTBS Koch et al. (2009) [48] PD ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
Carrillo et al. (2013) [36] PD ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↔ (HC)
Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] AD ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↔ (HC)
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] WD SI: 15 ms CS: 70 % RMT TS: 130 % RMT (adj. post) ↔ (HC)
Koch et al. (2014) [57] CD ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
iTBS Bonnì et al. (2014) [58] PCS ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV ↑ 15 ms
Brusa et al. (2013) [59] PSP ISI: 7, 10 and 15 ms CS: 80 % AMT TS: 1 mV
5. Afferent inhibition
SAI iTBS Brusa et al. (2014) [59] PSP ISI: 16, 20, 24 and 28 ms TS: 1 mV
cTBS Di Lorenzo et al. (2013) [40] AD ISI: N20–4 ms to N20 + 8 ms TS: 1 mV ↔ (HC)
Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] WD ISI: 20 ms TS: 130 % RMT (adj.post) CS: 130 % sensory threshold ↔ (HC)
Kishore et al. (2014) [51] PD with LIDs ISI: 20 ms TS: 1 mV
LAI cTBS Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] WD ISI: 200 ms TS: 130 % RMT (adj. post) CS: 130 % sensory threshold ↔ (HC)
6. Motor cortex plasticity
PAS Anodal TDCS Sadnicka et al. (2014) [56] WD ISI: 25 ms
cTBS Hubsch et al. (2013) [49] WD ISI: 25 ms
Koch et al. (2014) [57] CD ISI: 25 ms ↑ (topographic specificity)
Kishore et al. (2014) [51] PD with LIDs ISI: 25 ms ↔ (HC)
iTBS Hubsch et al (2013) [49] WD ISI: 25 ms
iTBS cTBS Kishore et al. (2014) [51] PD with LIDs ISI: 25 ms
  1. AD Alzheimer’s disease, AMT active motor threshold, CBI cerebellar brain inhibition, CS conditioning stimulus, Contra contralateral, CSP cortical silent period, ET essential tremor, HC healthy controls, ICF intracortical facilitation, Ipsi. ipsilateral, ISI inter-stimulus interval, LAI long latency afferent inhibition, LICI long interval intracortical inhibition, LIDs levodopa-induced dyskinesias, MEP motor evoked potential, PAS paired-associative stimulation, PCS posterior circulation stroke, PD Parkinson’s disease, PSP progressive supranuclear palsy, RT resting tremors, SAI short latency afferent inhibition, SICI short interval intracortical inhibition, TS test stimulus, WD writing dystonia