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Table 5 Comparison between anti-GAD65 antibody and anti-glutamate receptors antibodies

From: Immune-mediated cerebellar ataxias: from bench to bedside

  Anti-GAD65 antibody Anti-NMDA and anti-AMPA receptors antibodies
Common features Autoantibodies-induced synaptic dysfunction
Action site Presynaptic site Postsynaptic site
Actions Decrease in GABA release due to impaired release mechanisms Decrease in receptors due to internalization
Functional impairment in synaptic transmission Impaired inhibitory synaptic transmission Impaired excitatory synaptic transmission
Imbalance between glutamate and GABA Predominance of glutamate over GABA Glutamatergic dysfunction: Impairment of both the NMDA- and the AMPA-mediated synaptic regulation of glutamate. No effect on the glial transport of glutamatea.
Excitotoxicity Prompt excitotoxicity leading to cell death Probable excitotoxicity
Immunotherapy Not effective cases with atrophy and poor prognosis Effective and good prognosis at an early stage
  1. aEvidence in CA1 area of Ammon’s horn and in premotor cortex in rats